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In nature there are neither rewards nor punishments; there are consequences – Robert Green Ingersoll
Light Pollution

Start / Finish Dates:  February - April 2021


En-Sure was engaged to prepare an External Lighting Work Plan that aimed to identify mitigating measures to reduce external lighting effects on avifauna. 


The Work Plan was requested by the Environment and Resources Authority (ERA) since the facility’s location directly overlooks three Special Protection Areas (SPA) where colonies of birds such as shearwaters and storm petrels are known to breed.  Breeding habitat is continually being lost on the Maltese Islands through the encroachment of artificial light; in addition, fledglings are attracted to our village’s bright lights and become disorientated, which often leads to strandings on land. 


En-Sure Ltd carried out a full assessment of the current lighting scheme at the facility to assess if any external lighting sources were contributing to any of the following characteristics of light pollution: glare, light trespass, over-illumination, and sky glow.  Additionally, the type of light bulbs used were assessed in order to determine the facility’s use of bright white LEDs, which, whilst being a popular choice, emit excessive short-wavelength blue light, which increases the four characteristics of light pollution.  


En-Sure Ltd then presented several mitigating measures to the facility Operators, taking into account the practicality of implementing the measures not to disrupt current operations at the facility whilst reducing the facility’s contribution to light pollution.  The Work Plan concluded with the agreed mitigating measures and realistic timeframes.